PHP MySQL 登录系统

在本教程中,你将学习如何使用 PHP 和 MySQL 构建登录系统。

实现用户认证机制

用户身份验证在现代 Web 应用程序中非常常见。它是一种安全机制,用于限制对站点上仅限成员的区域和工具的未授权访问。

在本教程中,我们将使用 PHP 和 MySQL 创建一个简单的注册和登录系统。本教程由两部分组成:第一部分我们将创建一个用户注册表单,第二部分我们将创建一个登录表单,以及一个欢迎页面和一个注销脚本。

建立注册系统

在本节中,我们将构建一个注册系统,允许用户通过填写​​Web 表单来创建新帐户。但是,首先我们需要创建一个包含所有用户数据的表。

第 1 步:创建数据库表

执行以下 SQL 查询以在 MySQL 数据库中创建 users 表。

CREATE TABLE users (
    id INT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY AUTO_INCREMENT,
    username VARCHAR(50) NOT NULL UNIQUE,
    password VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL,
    created_at DATETIME DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP
);

有关在 MySQL 数据库系统中创建表的语法的详细信息,请查看 SQL CREATE TABLE 语句 教程。

第 2 步:创建配置文件

创建表后,我们需要创建一个 PHP 脚本才能连接到 MySQL 数据库服务器。让我们创建一个名为 config.php 的文件,并在其中放入以下代码。

面向过程式

<?php
/* Database credentials. Assuming you are running MySQL
server with default setting (user 'root' with no password) */
define('DB_SERVER', 'localhost');
define('DB_USERNAME', 'root');
define('DB_PASSWORD', '');
define('DB_NAME', 'demo');
 
/* Attempt to connect to MySQL database */
$link = mysqli_connect(DB_SERVER, DB_USERNAME, DB_PASSWORD, DB_NAME);
 
// Check connection
if($link === false){
    die("ERROR: Could not connect. " . mysqli_connect_error());
}
?>

面向对象式

<?php
/* Database credentials. Assuming you are running MySQL
server with default setting (user 'root' with no password) */
define('DB_SERVER', 'localhost');
define('DB_USERNAME', 'root');
define('DB_PASSWORD', '');
define('DB_NAME', 'demo');
 
/* Attempt to connect to MySQL database */
$mysqli = new mysqli(DB_SERVER, DB_USERNAME, DB_PASSWORD, DB_NAME);
 
// Check connection
if($mysqli === false){
    die("ERROR: Could not connect. " . $mysqli->connect_error);
}
?>

PDO 式

<?php
/* Database credentials. Assuming you are running MySQL
server with default setting (user 'root' with no password) */
define('DB_SERVER', 'localhost');
define('DB_USERNAME', 'root');
define('DB_PASSWORD', '');
define('DB_NAME', 'demo');
 
/* Attempt to connect to MySQL database */
try{
    $pdo = new PDO("mysql:host=" . DB_SERVER . ";dbname=" . DB_NAME, DB_USERNAME, DB_PASSWORD);
    // Set the PDO error mode to exception
    $pdo->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE, PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION);
} catch(PDOException $e){
    die("ERROR: Could not connect. " . $e->getMessage());
}
?>

注意: 在测试此代码之前,请根据 MySQL 服务器设置替换凭据,例如,将数据库名称’domo’替换为你自己的数据库名称,将 username root 替换为你自己的数据库用户名,如果有,请指定数据库密码。

第 3 步:创建注册表

让我们创建另一个 PHP 文件 register.php 并将以下示例代码放入其中。此示例代码将创建一个允许用户注册自己的 Web 表单。

如果用户尝试在不输入任何值的情况下提交表单,或者如果用户输入的用户名已被其他用户使用,则此脚本也会生成错误。

面向过程式

<?php
// Include config file
require_once "config.php";
 
// Define variables and initialize with empty values
$username = $password = $confirm_password = "";
$username_err = $password_err = $confirm_password_err = "";
 
// Processing form data when form is submitted
if($_SERVER["REQUEST_METHOD"] == "POST"){
 
    // Validate username
    if(empty(trim($_POST["username"]))){
        $username_err = "Please enter a username.";
    } else{
        // Prepare a select statement
        $sql = "SELECT id FROM users WHERE username = ?";
        
        if($stmt = mysqli_prepare($link, $sql)){
            // Bind variables to the prepared statement as parameters
            mysqli_stmt_bind_param($stmt, "s", $param_username);
            
            // Set parameters
            $param_username = trim($_POST["username"]);
            
            // Attempt to execute the prepared statement
            if(mysqli_stmt_execute($stmt)){
                /* store result */
                mysqli_stmt_store_result($stmt);
                
                if(mysqli_stmt_num_rows($stmt) == 1){
                    $username_err = "This username is already taken.";
                } else{
                    $username = trim($_POST["username"]);
                }
            } else{
                echo "Oops! Something went wrong. Please try again later.";
            }
        }
         
        // Close statement
        mysqli_stmt_close($stmt);
    }
    
    // Validate password
    if(empty(trim($_POST["password"]))){
        $password_err = "Please enter a password.";     
    } elseif(strlen(trim($_POST["password"])) < 6){
        $password_err = "Password must have atleast 6 characters.";
    } else{
        $password = trim($_POST["password"]);
    }
    
    // Validate confirm password
    if(empty(trim($_POST["confirm_password"]))){
        $confirm_password_err = "Please confirm password.";     
    } else{
        $confirm_password = trim($_POST["confirm_password"]);
        if(empty($password_err) && ($password != $confirm_password)){
            $confirm_password_err = "Password did not match.";
        }
    }
    
    // Check input errors before inserting in database
    if(empty($username_err) && empty($password_err) && empty($confirm_password_err)){
        
        // Prepare an insert statement
        $sql = "INSERT INTO users (username, password) VALUES (?, ?)";
         
        if($stmt = mysqli_prepare($link, $sql)){
            // Bind variables to the prepared statement as parameters
            mysqli_stmt_bind_param($stmt, "ss", $param_username, $param_password);
            
            // Set parameters
            $param_username = $username;
            $param_password = password_hash($password, PASSWORD_DEFAULT); // Creates a password hash
            
            // Attempt to execute the prepared statement
            if(mysqli_stmt_execute($stmt)){
                // Redirect to login page
                header("location: login.php");
            } else{
                echo "Something went wrong. Please try again later.";
            }
        }
         
        // Close statement
        mysqli_stmt_close($stmt);
    }
    
    // Close connection
    mysqli_close($link);
}
?>
 
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Sign Up</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.css">
    <style type="text/css">
        body{ font: 14px sans-serif; }
        .wrapper{ width: 350px; padding: 20px; }
    </style>
</head>
<body>
    <div class="wrapper">
        <h2>Sign Up</h2>
        <p>Please fill this form to create an account.</p>
        <form action="<?php echo htmlspecialchars($_SERVER["PHP_SELF"]); ?>" method="post">
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($username_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>Username</label>
                <input type="text" name="username" class="form-control" value="<?php echo $username; ?>">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $username_err; ?></span>
            </div>    
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($password_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>Password</label>
                <input type="password" name="password" class="form-control" value="<?php echo $password; ?>">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $password_err; ?></span>
            </div>
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($confirm_password_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>Confirm Password</label>
                <input type="password" name="confirm_password" class="form-control" value="<?php echo $confirm_password; ?>">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $confirm_password_err; ?></span>
            </div>
            <div class="form-group">
                <input type="submit" class="btn btn-primary" value="Submit">
                <input type="reset" class="btn btn-default" value="Reset">
            </div>
            <p>Already have an account? <a href="login.php">Login here</a>.</p>
        </form>
    </div>    
</body>
</html>

面向对象式

<?php
// Include config file
require_once "config.php";
 
// Define variables and initialize with empty values
$username = $password = $confirm_password = "";
$username_err = $password_err = $confirm_password_err = "";
 
// Processing form data when form is submitted
if($_SERVER["REQUEST_METHOD"] == "POST"){
 
    // Validate username
    if(empty(trim($_POST["username"]))){
        $username_err = "Please enter a username.";
    } else{
        // Prepare a select statement
        $sql = "SELECT id FROM users WHERE username = ?";
        
        if($stmt = $mysqli->prepare($sql)){
            // Bind variables to the prepared statement as parameters
            $stmt->bind_param("s", $param_username);
            
            // Set parameters
            $param_username = trim($_POST["username"]);
            
            // Attempt to execute the prepared statement
            if($stmt->execute()){
                // store result
                $stmt->store_result();
                
                if($stmt->num_rows == 1){
                    $username_err = "This username is already taken.";
                } else{
                    $username = trim($_POST["username"]);
                }
            } else{
                echo "Oops! Something went wrong. Please try again later.";
            }
        }
         
        // Close statement
        $stmt->close();
    }
    
    // Validate password
    if(empty(trim($_POST["password"]))){
        $password_err = "Please enter a password.";     
    } elseif(strlen(trim($_POST["password"])) < 6){
        $password_err = "Password must have atleast 6 characters.";
    } else{
        $password = trim($_POST["password"]);
    }
    
    // Validate confirm password
    if(empty(trim($_POST["confirm_password"]))){
        $confirm_password_err = "Please confirm password.";     
    } else{
        $confirm_password = trim($_POST["confirm_password"]);
        if(empty($password_err) && ($password != $confirm_password)){
            $confirm_password_err = "Password did not match.";
        }
    }
    
    // Check input errors before inserting in database
    if(empty($username_err) && empty($password_err) && empty($confirm_password_err)){
        
        // Prepare an insert statement
        $sql = "INSERT INTO users (username, password) VALUES (?, ?)";
         
        if($stmt = $mysqli->prepare($sql)){
            // Bind variables to the prepared statement as parameters
            $stmt->bind_param("ss", $param_username, $param_password);
            
            // Set parameters
            $param_username = $username;
            $param_password = password_hash($password, PASSWORD_DEFAULT); // Creates a password hash
            
            // Attempt to execute the prepared statement
            if($stmt->execute()){
                // Redirect to login page
                header("location: login.php");
            } else{
                echo "Something went wrong. Please try again later.";
            }
        }
         
        // Close statement
        $stmt->close();
    }
    
    // Close connection
    $mysqli->close();
}
?>
 
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Sign Up</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.css">
    <style type="text/css">
        body{ font: 14px sans-serif; }
        .wrapper{ width: 350px; padding: 20px; }
    </style>
</head>
<body>
    <div class="wrapper">
        <h2>Sign Up</h2>
        <p>Please fill this form to create an account.</p>
        <form action="<?php echo htmlspecialchars($_SERVER["PHP_SELF"]); ?>" method="post">
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($username_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>Username</label>
                <input type="text" name="username" class="form-control" value="<?php echo $username; ?>">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $username_err; ?></span>
            </div>    
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($password_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>Password</label>
                <input type="password" name="password" class="form-control" value="<?php echo $password; ?>">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $password_err; ?></span>
            </div>
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($confirm_password_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>Confirm Password</label>
                <input type="password" name="confirm_password" class="form-control" value="<?php echo $confirm_password; ?>">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $confirm_password_err; ?></span>
            </div>
            <div class="form-group">
                <input type="submit" class="btn btn-primary" value="Submit">
                <input type="reset" class="btn btn-default" value="Reset">
            </div>
            <p>Already have an account? <a href="login.php">Login here</a>.</p>
        </form>
    </div>    
</body>
</html>

PDO 式

<?php
// Include config file
require_once "config.php";
 
// Define variables and initialize with empty values
$username = $password = $confirm_password = "";
$username_err = $password_err = $confirm_password_err = "";
 
// Processing form data when form is submitted
if($_SERVER["REQUEST_METHOD"] == "POST"){
 
    // Validate username
    if(empty(trim($_POST["username"]))){
        $username_err = "Please enter a username.";
    } else{
        // Prepare a select statement
        $sql = "SELECT id FROM users WHERE username = :username";
        
        if($stmt = $pdo->prepare($sql)){
            // Bind variables to the prepared statement as parameters
            $stmt->bindParam(":username", $param_username, PDO::PARAM_STR);
            
            // Set parameters
            $param_username = trim($_POST["username"]);
            
            // Attempt to execute the prepared statement
            if($stmt->execute()){
                if($stmt->rowCount() == 1){
                    $username_err = "This username is already taken.";
                } else{
                    $username = trim($_POST["username"]);
                }
            } else{
                echo "Oops! Something went wrong. Please try again later.";
            }
        }
         
        // Close statement
        unset($stmt);
    }
    
    // Validate password
    if(empty(trim($_POST["password"]))){
        $password_err = "Please enter a password.";     
    } elseif(strlen(trim($_POST["password"])) < 6){
        $password_err = "Password must have atleast 6 characters.";
    } else{
        $password = trim($_POST["password"]);
    }
    
    // Validate confirm password
    if(empty(trim($_POST["confirm_password"]))){
        $confirm_password_err = "Please confirm password.";     
    } else{
        $confirm_password = trim($_POST["confirm_password"]);
        if(empty($password_err) && ($password != $confirm_password)){
            $confirm_password_err = "Password did not match.";
        }
    }
    
    // Check input errors before inserting in database
    if(empty($username_err) && empty($password_err) && empty($confirm_password_err)){
        
        // Prepare an insert statement
        $sql = "INSERT INTO users (username, password) VALUES (:username, :password)";
         
        if($stmt = $pdo->prepare($sql)){
            // Bind variables to the prepared statement as parameters
            $stmt->bindParam(":username", $param_username, PDO::PARAM_STR);
            $stmt->bindParam(":password", $param_password, PDO::PARAM_STR);
            
            // Set parameters
            $param_username = $username;
            $param_password = password_hash($password, PASSWORD_DEFAULT); // Creates a password hash
            
            // Attempt to execute the prepared statement
            if($stmt->execute()){
                // Redirect to login page
                header("location: login.php");
            } else{
                echo "Something went wrong. Please try again later.";
            }
        }
         
        // Close statement
        unset($stmt);
    }
    
    // Close connection
    unset($pdo);
}
?>
 
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Sign Up</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.css">
    <style type="text/css">
        body{ font: 14px sans-serif; }
        .wrapper{ width: 350px; padding: 20px; }
    </style>
</head>
<body>
    <div class="wrapper">
        <h2>Sign Up</h2>
        <p>Please fill this form to create an account.</p>
        <form action="<?php echo htmlspecialchars($_SERVER["PHP_SELF"]); ?>" method="post">
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($username_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>Username</label>
                <input type="text" name="username" class="form-control" value="<?php echo $username; ?>">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $username_err; ?></span>
            </div>    
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($password_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>Password</label>
                <input type="password" name="password" class="form-control" value="<?php echo $password; ?>">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $password_err; ?></span>
            </div>
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($confirm_password_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>Confirm Password</label>
                <input type="password" name="confirm_password" class="form-control" value="<?php echo $confirm_password; ?>">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $confirm_password_err; ?></span>
            </div>
            <div class="form-group">
                <input type="submit" class="btn btn-primary" value="Submit">
                <input type="reset" class="btn btn-default" value="Reset">
            </div>
            <p>Already have an account? <a href="login.php">Login here</a>.</p>
        </form>
    </div>    
</body>
</html>

- 上面示例的输出(即注册表单)将如下所示:

PHP 注册表单

在上面的示例中,我们使用 PHP password_hash() 函数从用户输入的密码字符串(*第 75 行*) 创建密码哈希。此函数使用强大的单向散列算法创建密码哈希。它还会在散列密码时自动生成并应用随机盐; 这意味着即使两个用户拥有相同的密码,他们的密码哈希值也会不同。

在登录时,我们将使用 PHP password_verify() 函数验证存储在数据库中的密码哈希的给定密码,如下一个示例所示。

我们使用 Bootstrap 框架快速而精美地制作表单布局。请查看 Bootstrap 教程 部分以了解有关此框架的更多信息。

提示: 加盐密码是一种广泛用于通过随机化密码哈希来保护密码的技术,因此如果两个用户具有相同的密码,则它们将不具有相同的密码哈希值。这是通过在散列之前将一个称为 salt 的随机字符串附加或预先添加到密码来完成的。

构建登录系统

在本节中,我们将创建一个登录表单,用户可以在其中输入用户名和密码。当用户提交表单时,将根据存储在数据库中的凭据验证这些输入,如果用户名和密码匹配,则授权用户访问该站点,否则将拒绝登录尝试。

第 1 步:创建登录表单

让我们创建一个名为 login.php 的文件,并在其中放置以下代码。

<?php
// Initialize the session
session_start();
 
// Check if the user is already logged in, if yes then redirect him to welcome page
if(isset($_SESSION["loggedin"]) && $_SESSION["loggedin"] === true){
    header("location: welcome.php");
    exit;
}
 
// Include config file
require_once "config.php";
 
// Define variables and initialize with empty values
$username = $password = "";
$username_err = $password_err = "";
 
// Processing form data when form is submitted
if($_SERVER["REQUEST_METHOD"] == "POST"){
 
    // Check if username is empty
    if(empty(trim($_POST["username"]))){
        $username_err = "Please enter username.";
    } else{
        $username = trim($_POST["username"]);
    }
    
    // Check if password is empty
    if(empty(trim($_POST["password"]))){
        $password_err = "Please enter your password.";
    } else{
        $password = trim($_POST["password"]);
    }
    
    // Validate credentials
    if(empty($username_err) && empty($password_err)){
        // Prepare a select statement
        $sql = "SELECT id, username, password FROM users WHERE username = ?";
        
        if($stmt = mysqli_prepare($link, $sql)){
            // Bind variables to the prepared statement as parameters
            mysqli_stmt_bind_param($stmt, "s", $param_username);
            
            // Set parameters
            $param_username = $username;
            
            // Attempt to execute the prepared statement
            if(mysqli_stmt_execute($stmt)){
                // Store result
                mysqli_stmt_store_result($stmt);
                
                // Check if username exists, if yes then verify password
                if(mysqli_stmt_num_rows($stmt) == 1){                    
                    // Bind result variables
                    mysqli_stmt_bind_result($stmt, $id, $username, $hashed_password);
                    if(mysqli_stmt_fetch($stmt)){
                        if(password_verify($password, $hashed_password)){
                            // Password is correct, so start a new session
                            session_start();
                            
                            // Store data in session variables
                            $_SESSION["loggedin"] = true;
                            $_SESSION["id"] = $id;
                            $_SESSION["username"] = $username;                            
                            
                            // Redirect user to welcome page
                            header("location: welcome.php");
                        } else{
                            // Display an error message if password is not valid
                            $password_err = "The password you entered was not valid.";
                        }
                    }
                } else{
                    // Display an error message if username doesn't exist
                    $username_err = "No account found with that username.";
                }
            } else{
                echo "Oops! Something went wrong. Please try again later.";
            }
        }
        
        // Close statement
        mysqli_stmt_close($stmt);
    }
    
    // Close connection
    mysqli_close($link);
}
?>
 
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Login</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.css">
    <style type="text/css">
        body{ font: 14px sans-serif; }
        .wrapper{ width: 350px; padding: 20px; }
    </style>
</head>
<body>
    <div class="wrapper">
        <h2>Login</h2>
        <p>Please fill in your credentials to login.</p>
        <form action="<?php echo htmlspecialchars($_SERVER["PHP_SELF"]); ?>" method="post">
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($username_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>Username</label>
                <input type="text" name="username" class="form-control" value="<?php echo $username; ?>">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $username_err; ?></span>
            </div>    
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($password_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>Password</label>
                <input type="password" name="password" class="form-control">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $password_err; ?></span>
            </div>
            <div class="form-group">
                <input type="submit" class="btn btn-primary" value="Login">
            </div>
            <p>Don't have an account? <a href="register.php">Sign up now</a>.</p>
        </form>
    </div>    
</body>
</html>
<?php
// Initialize the session
session_start();
 
// Check if the user is already logged in, if yes then redirect him to welcome page
if(isset($_SESSION["loggedin"]) && $_SESSION["loggedin"] === true){
    header("location: welcome.php");
    exit;
}
 
// Include config file
require_once "config.php";
 
// Define variables and initialize with empty values
$username = $password = "";
$username_err = $password_err = "";
 
// Processing form data when form is submitted
if($_SERVER["REQUEST_METHOD"] == "POST"){
 
    // Check if username is empty
    if(empty(trim($_POST["username"]))){
        $username_err = "Please enter username.";
    } else{
        $username = trim($_POST["username"]);
    }
    
    // Check if password is empty
    if(empty(trim($_POST["password"]))){
        $password_err = "Please enter your password.";
    } else{
        $password = trim($_POST["password"]);
    }
    
    // Validate credentials
    if(empty($username_err) && empty($password_err)){
        // Prepare a select statement
        $sql = "SELECT id, username, password FROM users WHERE username = ?";
        
        if($stmt = $mysqli->prepare($sql)){
            // Bind variables to the prepared statement as parameters
            $stmt->bind_param("s", $param_username);
            
            // Set parameters
            $param_username = $username;
            
            // Attempt to execute the prepared statement
            if($stmt->execute()){
                // Store result
                $stmt->store_result();
                
                // Check if username exists, if yes then verify password
                if($stmt->num_rows == 1){                    
                    // Bind result variables
                    $stmt->bind_result($id, $username, $hashed_password);
                    if($stmt->fetch()){
                        if(password_verify($password, $hashed_password)){
                            // Password is correct, so start a new session
                            session_start();
                            
                            // Store data in session variables
                            $_SESSION["loggedin"] = true;
                            $_SESSION["id"] = $id;
                            $_SESSION["username"] = $username;                            
                            
                            // Redirect user to welcome page
                            header("location: welcome.php");
                        } else{
                            // Display an error message if password is not valid
                            $password_err = "The password you entered was not valid.";
                        }
                    }
                } else{
                    // Display an error message if username doesn't exist
                    $username_err = "No account found with that username.";
                }
            } else{
                echo "Oops! Something went wrong. Please try again later.";
            }
        }
        
        // Close statement
        $stmt->close();
    }
    
    // Close connection
    $mysqli->close();
}
?>
 
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Login</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.css">
    <style type="text/css">
        body{ font: 14px sans-serif; }
        .wrapper{ width: 350px; padding: 20px; }
    </style>
</head>
<body>
    
        <h2>Login</h2>
        <p>Please fill in your credentials to login.</p>
        <form action="<?php echo htmlspecialchars($_SERVER["PHP_SELF"]); ?>" method="post">
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($username_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>Username</label>
                <input type="text" name="username" class="form-control" value="<?php echo $username; ?>">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $username_err; ?></span>
            </div>    
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($password_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>Password</label>
                <input type="password" name="password" class="form-control">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $password_err; ?></span>
            </div>
            <div class="form-group">
                <input type="submit" class="btn btn-primary" value="Login">
            </div>
            <p>Don't have an account? <a href="register.php">Sign up now</a>.</p>
        </form>
    </div>    
</body>
</html>
<?php
// Initialize the session
session_start();
 
// Check if the user is already logged in, if yes then redirect him to welcome page
if(isset($_SESSION["loggedin"]) && $_SESSION["loggedin"] === true){
    header("location: welcome.php");
    exit;
}
 
// Include config file
require_once "config.php";
 
// Define variables and initialize with empty values
$username = $password = "";
$username_err = $password_err = "";
 
// Processing form data when form is submitted
if($_SERVER["REQUEST_METHOD"] == "POST"){
 
    // Check if username is empty
    if(empty(trim($_POST["username"]))){
        $username_err = "Please enter username.";
    } else{
        $username = trim($_POST["username"]);
    }
    
    // Check if password is empty
    if(empty(trim($_POST["password"]))){
        $password_err = "Please enter your password.";
    } else{
        $password = trim($_POST["password"]);
    }
    
    // Validate credentials
    if(empty($username_err) && empty($password_err)){
        // Prepare a select statement
        $sql = "SELECT id, username, password FROM users WHERE username = :username";
        
        if($stmt = $pdo->prepare($sql)){
            // Bind variables to the prepared statement as parameters
            $stmt->bindParam(":username", $param_username, PDO::PARAM_STR);
            
            // Set parameters
            $param_username = trim($_POST["username"]);
            
            // Attempt to execute the prepared statement
            if($stmt->execute()){
                // Check if username exists, if yes then verify password
                if($stmt->rowCount() == 1){
                    if($row = $stmt->fetch()){
                        $id = $row["id"];
                        $username = $row["username"];
                        $hashed_password = $row["password"];
                        if(password_verify($password, $hashed_password)){
                            // Password is correct, so start a new session
                            session_start();
                            
                            // Store data in session variables
                            $_SESSION["loggedin"] = true;
                            $_SESSION["id"] = $id;
                            $_SESSION["username"] = $username;                            
                            
                            // Redirect user to welcome page
                            header("location: welcome.php");
                        } else{
                            // Display an error message if password is not valid
                            $password_err = "The password you entered was not valid.";
                        }
                    }
                } else{
                    // Display an error message if username doesn't exist
                    $username_err = "No account found with that username.";
                }
            } else{
                echo "Oops! Something went wrong. Please try again later.";
            }
        }
        
        // Close statement
        unset($stmt);
    }
    
    // Close connection
    unset($pdo);
}
?>
 
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Login</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.css">
    <style type="text/css">
        body{ font: 14px sans-serif; }
        .wrapper{ width: 350px; padding: 20px; }
    </style>
</head>
<body>
    <div class="wrapper">
        <h2>Login</h2>
        <p>Please fill in your credentials to login.</p>
        <form action="<?php echo htmlspecialchars($_SERVER["PHP_SELF"]); ?>" method="post">
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($username_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>Username</label>
                <input type="text" name="username" class="form-control" value="<?php echo $username; ?>">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $username_err; ?></span>
            </div>    
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($password_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>Password</label>
                <input type="password" name="password" class="form-control">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $password_err; ?></span>
            </div>
            <div class="form-group">
                <input type="submit" class="btn btn-primary" value="Login">
            </div>
            <p>Don't have an account? <a href="register.php">Sign up now</a>.</p>
        </form>
    </div>
</body>
</html>

- 上面示例的输出(即登录表单)将如下所示:

PHP 登录表单

第 2 步:创建欢迎页面

这是我们的 welcome.php 文件的代码,用户在成功登录后被重定向。

<?php
// Initialize the session
session_start();
 
// Check if the user is logged in, if not then redirect him to login page
if(!isset($_SESSION["loggedin"]) || $_SESSION["loggedin"] !== true){
    header("location: login.php");
    exit;
}
?>
 
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Welcome</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.css">
    <style type="text/css">
        body{ font: 14px sans-serif; text-align: center; }
    </style>
</head>
<body>
    
        <h1>Hi, <b><?php echo htmlspecialchars($_SESSION["username"]); ?></b>. Welcome to our site.</h1>
    
    <p>
        <a href="reset-password.php" class="btn btn-warning">Reset Your Password</a>
        <a href="logout.php" class="btn btn-danger">Sign Out of Your Account</a>
    </p>
</body>
</html>

如果数据来自外部来源(如匿名用户填写的表单),则可能会包含缩进的恶意脚本以启动跨站点脚本(XSS)攻击。因此,你必须使用 PHP htmlspecialchars() 函数转义此数据,然后才能在浏览器中显示它,以便它包含的任何 HTML 标记都变得无害。

例如,在转义特殊字符后,字符串 <script>alert("XSS")</script> 将变为 &lt;script&gt;alert("XSS")&lt;/script&gt; 浏览器不执行该字符串。

第 3 步:创建注销脚本

现在,让我们创建一个 logout.php 文件。当用户单击注销或注销链接时,此文件中的脚本会破坏会话并将用户重定向回登录页面。

<?php
// Initialize the session
session_start();
 
// Unset all of the session variables
$_SESSION = array();
 
// Destroy the session.
session_destroy();
 
// Redirect to login page
header("location: login.php");
exit;
?>

添加密码重置功能

最后,在本节中,我们将向我们的登录系统添加密码重置实用程序。使用此功能*登录的用户*可以立即重置自己的帐户密码。

<?php
// Initialize the session
session_start();
 
// Check if the user is logged in, if not then redirect to login page
if(!isset($_SESSION["loggedin"]) || $_SESSION["loggedin"] !== true){
    header("location: login.php");
    exit;
}
 
// Include config file
require_once "config.php";
 
// Define variables and initialize with empty values
$new_password = $confirm_password = "";
$new_password_err = $confirm_password_err = "";
 
// Processing form data when form is submitted
if($_SERVER["REQUEST_METHOD"] == "POST"){
 
    // Validate new password
    if(empty(trim($_POST["new_password"]))){
        $new_password_err = "Please enter the new password.";     
    } elseif(strlen(trim($_POST["new_password"])) < 6){
        $new_password_err = "Password must have atleast 6 characters.";
    } else{
        $new_password = trim($_POST["new_password"]);
    }
    
    // Validate confirm password
    if(empty(trim($_POST["confirm_password"]))){
        $confirm_password_err = "Please confirm the password.";
    } else{
        $confirm_password = trim($_POST["confirm_password"]);
        if(empty($new_password_err) && ($new_password != $confirm_password)){
            $confirm_password_err = "Password did not match.";
        }
    }
        
    // Check input errors before updating the database
    if(empty($new_password_err) && empty($confirm_password_err)){
        // Prepare an update statement
        $sql = "UPDATE users SET password = ? WHERE id = ?";
        
        if($stmt = mysqli_prepare($link, $sql)){
            // Bind variables to the prepared statement as parameters
            mysqli_stmt_bind_param($stmt, "si", $param_password, $param_id);
            
            // Set parameters
            $param_password = password_hash($new_password, PASSWORD_DEFAULT);
            $param_id = $_SESSION["id"];
            
            // Attempt to execute the prepared statement
            if(mysqli_stmt_execute($stmt)){
                // Password updated successfully. Destroy the session, and redirect to login page
                session_destroy();
                header("location: login.php");
                exit();
            } else{
                echo "Oops! Something went wrong. Please try again later.";
            }
        }
        
        // Close statement
        mysqli_stmt_close($stmt);
    }
    
    // Close connection
    mysqli_close($link);
}
?>
 
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Reset Password</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.css">
    <style type="text/css">
        body{ font: 14px sans-serif; }
        .wrapper{ width: 350px; padding: 20px; }
    </style>
</head>
<body>
    <div class="wrapper">
        <h2>Reset Password</h2>
        <p>Please fill out this form to reset your password.</p>
        <form action="<?php echo htmlspecialchars($_SERVER["PHP_SELF"]); ?>" method="post"> 
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($new_password_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>New Password</label>
                <input type="password" name="new_password" class="form-control" value="<?php echo $new_password; ?>">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $new_password_err; ?></span>
            </div>
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($confirm_password_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>Confirm Password</label>
                <input type="password" name="confirm_password" class="form-control">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $confirm_password_err; ?></span>
            </div>
            <div class="form-group">
                <input type="submit" class="btn btn-primary" value="Submit">
                <a class="btn btn-link" href="welcome.php">Cancel</a>
            </div>
        </form>
    </div>    
</body>
</html>
<?php
// Initialize the session
session_start();
 
// Check if the user is logged in, if not then redirect to login page
if(!isset($_SESSION["loggedin"]) || $_SESSION["loggedin"] !== true){
    header("location: login.php");
    exit;
}
 
// Include config file
require_once "config.php";
 
// Define variables and initialize with empty values
$new_password = $confirm_password = "";
$new_password_err = $confirm_password_err = "";
 
// Processing form data when form is submitted
if($_SERVER["REQUEST_METHOD"] == "POST"){
 
    // Validate new password
    if(empty(trim($_POST["new_password"]))){
        $new_password_err = "Please enter the new password.";     
    } elseif(strlen(trim($_POST["new_password"])) < 6){
        $new_password_err = "Password must have atleast 6 characters.";
    } else{
        $new_password = trim($_POST["new_password"]);
    }
    
    // Validate confirm password
    if(empty(trim($_POST["confirm_password"]))){
        $confirm_password_err = "Please confirm the password.";
    } else{
        $confirm_password = trim($_POST["confirm_password"]);
        if(empty($new_password_err) && ($new_password != $confirm_password)){
            $confirm_password_err = "Password did not match.";
        }
    }
        
    // Check input errors before updating the database
    if(empty($new_password_err) && empty($confirm_password_err)){
        // Prepare an update statement
        $sql = "UPDATE users SET password = ? WHERE id = ?";
        
        if($stmt = $mysqli->prepare($sql)){
            // Bind variables to the prepared statement as parameters
            $stmt->bind_param("si", $param_password, $param_id);
            
            // Set parameters
            $param_password = password_hash($new_password, PASSWORD_DEFAULT);
            $param_id = $_SESSION["id"];
            
            // Attempt to execute the prepared statement
            if($stmt->execute()){
                // Password updated successfully. Destroy the session, and redirect to login page
                session_destroy();
                header("location: login.php");
                exit();
            } else{
                echo "Oops! Something went wrong. Please try again later.";
            }
        }
        
        // Close statement
        $stmt->close();
    }
    
    // Close connection
    $mysqli->close();
}
?>
 
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Reset Password</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.css">
    <style type="text/css">
        body{ font: 14px sans-serif; }
        .wrapper{ width: 350px; padding: 20px; }
    </style>
</head>
<body>
    <div class="wrapper">
        <h2>Reset Password</h2>
        <p>Please fill out this form to reset your password.</p>
        <form action="<?php echo htmlspecialchars($_SERVER["PHP_SELF"]); ?>" method="post"> 
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($new_password_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>New Password</label>
                <input type="password" name="new_password" class="form-control" value="<?php echo $new_password; ?>">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $new_password_err; ?></span>
            </div>
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($confirm_password_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>Confirm Password</label>
                <input type="password" name="confirm_password" class="form-control">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $confirm_password_err; ?></span>
            </div>
            <div class="form-group">
                <input type="submit" class="btn btn-primary" value="Submit">
                <a class="btn btn-link" href="welcome.php">Cancel</a>
            </div>
        </form>
    </div>    
</body>
</html>
<?php
// Initialize the session
session_start();
 
// Check if the user is logged in, if not then redirect to login page
if(!isset($_SESSION["loggedin"]) || $_SESSION["loggedin"] !== true){
    header("location: login.php");
    exit;
}
 
// Include config file
require_once "config.php";
 
// Define variables and initialize with empty values
$new_password = $confirm_password = "";
$new_password_err = $confirm_password_err = "";
 
// Processing form data when form is submitted
if($_SERVER["REQUEST_METHOD"] == "POST"){
 
    // Validate new password
    if(empty(trim($_POST["new_password"]))){
        $new_password_err = "Please enter the new password.";     
    } elseif(strlen(trim($_POST["new_password"])) < 6){
        $new_password_err = "Password must have atleast 6 characters.";
    } else{
        $new_password = trim($_POST["new_password"]);
    }
    
    // Validate confirm password
    if(empty(trim($_POST["confirm_password"]))){
        $confirm_password_err = "Please confirm the password.";
    } else{
        $confirm_password = trim($_POST["confirm_password"]);
        if(empty($new_password_err) && ($new_password != $confirm_password)){
            $confirm_password_err = "Password did not match.";
        }
    }
        
    // Check input errors before updating the database
    if(empty($new_password_err) && empty($confirm_password_err)){
        // Prepare an update statement
        $sql = "UPDATE users SET password = :password WHERE id = :id";
        
        if($stmt = $pdo->prepare($sql)){
            // Bind variables to the prepared statement as parameters
            $stmt->bindParam(":password", $param_password, PDO::PARAM_STR);
            $stmt->bindParam(":id", $param_id, PDO::PARAM_INT);
            
            // Set parameters
            $param_password = password_hash($new_password, PASSWORD_DEFAULT);
            $param_id = $_SESSION["id"];
            
            // Attempt to execute the prepared statement
            if($stmt->execute()){
                // Password updated successfully. Destroy the session, and redirect to login page
                session_destroy();
                header("location: login.php");
                exit();
            } else{
                echo "Oops! Something went wrong. Please try again later.";
            }
        }
        
        // Close statement
        unset($stmt);
    }
    
    // Close connection
    unset($pdo);
}
?>
 
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Reset Password</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.css">
    <style type="text/css">
        body{ font: 14px sans-serif; }
        .wrapper{ width: 350px; padding: 20px; }
    </style>
</head>
<body>
    <div class="wrapper">
        <h2>Reset Password</h2>
        <p>Please fill out this form to reset your password.</p>
        <form action="<?php echo htmlspecialchars($_SERVER["PHP_SELF"]); ?>" method="post"> 
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($new_password_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>New Password</label>
                <input type="password" name="new_password" class="form-control" value="<?php echo $new_password; ?>">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $new_password_err; ?></span>
            </div>
            <div class="form-group <?php echo (!empty($confirm_password_err)) ? 'has-error' : ''; ?>">
                <label>Confirm Password</label>
                <input type="password" name="confirm_password" class="form-control">
                <span class="help-block"><?php echo $confirm_password_err; ?></span>
            </div>
            <div class="form-group">
                <input type="submit" class="btn btn-primary" value="Submit">
                <a class="btn btn-link" href="welcome.php">Cancel</a>
            </div>
        </form>
    </div>    
</body>
</html>