PHP MySQL INSERT 查询

在本教程中,你将学习如何使用 PHP 在 MySQL 表中插入记录。

将数据插入 MySQL 数据库表

现在你已经了解了如何在 MySQL 中创建数据库和表。在本教程中,你将学习如何执行 SQL 查询以将记录插入表中。

INSERT INTO语句用于在数据库表中插入新行。

让我们使用具有适当值的 INSERT INTO 语句来进行 SQL 查询,之后我们将执行此插入查询,方法是将其传递给 PHP mysqli_query() 函数以在表中插入数据。这是一个示例,它通过指定 *first_name*,last_nameemail 字段的值将新行插入到 person 表中。

面向过程式

<?php
/* Attempt MySQL server connection. Assuming you are running MySQL
server with default setting (user 'root' with no password) */
$link = mysqli_connect("localhost", "root", "", "demo");
 
// Check connection
if($link === false){
    die("ERROR: Could not connect. " . mysqli_connect_error());
}
 
// Attempt insert query execution
$sql = "INSERT INTO persons (first_name, last_name, email) VALUES ('Peter', 'Parker', 'peterparker@mail.com')";
if(mysqli_query($link, $sql)){
    echo "Records inserted successfully.";
} else{
    echo "ERROR: Could not able to execute $sql. " . mysqli_error($link);
}
 
// Close connection
mysqli_close($link);
?>

面向对象式

<?php
/* Attempt MySQL server connection. Assuming you are running MySQL
server with default setting (user 'root' with no password) */
$mysqli = new mysqli("localhost", "root", "", "demo");
 
// Check connection
if($mysqli === false){
    die("ERROR: Could not connect. " . $mysqli->connect_error);
}
 
// Attempt insert query execution
$sql = "INSERT INTO persons (first_name, last_name, email) VALUES ('Peter', 'Parker', 'peterparker@mail.com')";
if($mysqli->query($sql) === true){
    echo "Records inserted successfully.";
} else{
    echo "ERROR: Could not able to execute $sql. " . $mysqli->error;
}
 
// Close connection
$mysqli->close();
?>

PDO 式

<?php
/* Attempt MySQL server connection. Assuming you are running MySQL
server with default setting (user 'root' with no password) */
try{
    $pdo = new PDO("mysql:host=localhost;dbname=demo", "root", "");
    // Set the PDO error mode to exception
    $pdo->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE, PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION);
} catch(PDOException $e){
    die("ERROR: Could not connect. " . $e->getMessage());
}
 
// Attempt insert query execution
try{
    $sql = "INSERT INTO persons (first_name, last_name, email) VALUES ('Peter', 'Parker', 'peterparker@mail.com')";    
    $pdo->exec($sql);
    echo "Records inserted successfully.";
} catch(PDOException $e){
    die("ERROR: Could not able to execute $sql. " . $e->getMessage());
}
 
// Close connection
unset($pdo);
?>

如果你记得上一章,则 id 字段标有 AUTO_INCREMENT 标志。此修饰符通过将前一个值递增 1,告诉 MySQL 在未指定的情况下自动为该字段赋值。

将多行插入表中

你还可以一次使用单个插入查询将多行插入到表中。为此,请在 INSERT INTO 语句中包含多个列值列表,其中每行的列值必须括在括号内并用逗号分隔。

让我们在 persons 表中插入更多行,如下所示:

面向过程式

<?php
/* Attempt MySQL server connection. Assuming you are running MySQL
server with default setting (user 'root' with no password) */
$link = mysqli_connect("localhost", "root", "", "demo");
 
// Check connection
if($link === false){
    die("ERROR: Could not connect. " . mysqli_connect_error());
}
 
// Attempt insert query execution
$sql = "INSERT INTO persons (first_name, last_name, email) VALUES
            ('John', 'Rambo', 'johnrambo@mail.com'),
            ('Clark', 'Kent', 'clarkkent@mail.com'),
            ('John', 'Carter', 'johncarter@mail.com'),
            ('Harry', 'Potter', 'harrypotter@mail.com')";
if(mysqli_query($link, $sql)){
    echo "Records added successfully.";
} else{
    echo "ERROR: Could not able to execute $sql. " . mysqli_error($link);
}
 
// Close connection
mysqli_close($link);
?>

面向对象式

<?php
/* Attempt MySQL server connection. Assuming you are running MySQL
server with default setting (user 'root' with no password) */
$mysqli = new mysqli("localhost", "root", "", "demo");
 
// Check connection
if($mysqli === false){
    die("ERROR: Could not connect. " . $mysqli->connect_error);
}
 
// Attempt insert query execution
$sql = "INSERT INTO persons (first_name, last_name, email) VALUES
            ('John', 'Rambo', 'johnrambo@mail.com'),
            ('Clark', 'Kent', 'clarkkent@mail.com'),
            ('John', 'Carter', 'johncarter@mail.com'),
            ('Harry', 'Potter', 'harrypotter@mail.com')";
if($mysqli->query($sql) === true){
    echo "Records inserted successfully.";
} else{
    echo "ERROR: Could not able to execute $sql. " . $mysqli->error;
}
 
// Close connection
$mysqli->close();
?>

PDO 式

<?php
/* Attempt MySQL server connection. Assuming you are running MySQL
server with default setting (user 'root' with no password) */
try{
    $pdo = new PDO("mysql:host=localhost;dbname=demo", "root", "");
    // Set the PDO error mode to exception
    $pdo->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE, PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION);
} catch(PDOException $e){
    die("ERROR: Could not connect. " . $e->getMessage());
}
 
// Attempt insert query execution
try{
    $sql = "INSERT INTO persons (first_name, last_name, email) VALUES
            ('John', 'Rambo', 'johnrambo@mail.com'),
            ('Clark', 'Kent', 'clarkkent@mail.com'),
            ('John', 'Carter', 'johncarter@mail.com'),
            ('Harry', 'Potter', 'harrypotter@mail.com')";   
    $pdo->exec($sql);
    echo "Records inserted successfully.";
} catch(PDOException $e){
    die("ERROR: Could not able to execute $sql. " . $e->getMessage());
}
 
// Close connection
unset($pdo);
?>

现在,转到 phpMyAdmin(http://localhost/phpmyadmin/)并查看 demo 数据库中的 persons 表数据。你会发现通过将先前 id 的值递增 1 来自动分配 id 列的值。

注意: 如果换行符没有打断关键字,值,表达式等,则 SQL 语句中可能会出现任意数量的换行符。

从 HTML 表单将数据插入数据库

在上一节中,我们学习了如何从 PHP 脚本将数据插入数据库。现在,我们将看到如何将数据插入从 HTML 表单获取的数据库中。让我们创建一个 HTML 表单,可用于将新记录插入到 persons 表中。

第 1 步:创建 HTML 表单

这是一个简单的 HTML 表单,有三个文本字段和一个提交按钮。 <input>

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<title>Add Record Form</title>
</head>
<body>
<form action="insert.php" method="post">
    <p>
        <label for="firstName">First Name:</label>
        <input type="text" name="first_name" id="firstName">
    </p>
    <p>
        <label for="lastName">Last Name:</label>
        <input type="text" name="last_name" id="lastName">
    </p>
    <p>
        <label for="emailAddress">Email Address:</label>
        <input type="text" name="email" id="emailAddress">
    </p>
    <input type="submit" value="Submit">
</form>
</body>
</html>

第 2 步:检索并插入表单数据

当用户单击添加记录 HTML 表单的提交按钮时,在上面的示例中,表单数据将发送到 insert.php 文件。 insert.php 文件连接到 MySQL 数据库服务器,使用 PHP $_REQUEST 变量检索表单字段,最后执行插入查询以添加记录。这是我们的 insert.php 文件的完整代码:

面向过程式

<?php
/* Attempt MySQL server connection. Assuming you are running MySQL
server with default setting (user 'root' with no password) */
$link = mysqli_connect("localhost", "root", "", "demo");
 
// Check connection
if($link === false){
    die("ERROR: Could not connect. " . mysqli_connect_error());
}
 
// Escape user inputs for security
$first_name = mysqli_real_escape_string($link, $_REQUEST['first_name']);
$last_name = mysqli_real_escape_string($link, $_REQUEST['last_name']);
$email = mysqli_real_escape_string($link, $_REQUEST['email']);
 
// Attempt insert query execution
$sql = "INSERT INTO persons (first_name, last_name, email) VALUES ('$first_name', '$last_name', '$email')";
if(mysqli_query($link, $sql)){
    echo "Records added successfully.";
} else{
    echo "ERROR: Could not able to execute $sql. " . mysqli_error($link);
}
 
// Close connection
mysqli_close($link);
?>

面向对象式

<?php
/* Attempt MySQL server connection. Assuming you are running MySQL
server with default setting (user 'root' with no password) */
$mysqli = new mysqli("localhost", "root", "", "demo");
 
// Check connection
if($mysqli === false){
    die("ERROR: Could not connect. " . $mysqli->connect_error);
}
 
// Escape user inputs for security
$first_name = $mysqli->real_escape_string($_REQUEST['first_name']);
$last_name = $mysqli->real_escape_string($_REQUEST['last_name']);
$email = $mysqli->real_escape_string($_REQUEST['email']);
 
// Attempt insert query execution
$sql = "INSERT INTO persons (first_name, last_name, email) VALUES ('$first_name', '$last_name', '$email')";
if($mysqli->query($sql) === true){
    echo "Records inserted successfully.";
} else{
    echo "ERROR: Could not able to execute $sql. " . $mysqli->error;
}
 
// Close connection
$mysqli->close();
?>

PDO 式

<?php
/* Attempt MySQL server connection. Assuming you are running MySQL
server with default setting (user 'root' with no password) */
try{
    $pdo = new PDO("mysql:host=localhost;dbname=demo", "root", "");
    // Set the PDO error mode to exception
    $pdo->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE, PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION);
} catch(PDOException $e){
    die("ERROR: Could not connect. " . $e->getMessage());
}
 
// Attempt insert query execution
try{
    // Create prepared statement
    $sql = "INSERT INTO persons (first_name, last_name, email) VALUES (:first_name, :last_name, :email)";
    $stmt = $pdo->prepare($sql);
    
    // Bind parameters to statement
    $stmt->bindParam(':first_name', $_REQUEST['first_name']);
    $stmt->bindParam(':last_name', $_REQUEST['last_name']);
    $stmt->bindParam(':email', $_REQUEST['email']);
    
    // Execute the prepared statement
    $stmt->execute();
    echo "Records inserted successfully.";
} catch(PDOException $e){
    die("ERROR: Could not able to execute $sql. " . $e->getMessage());
}
 
// Close connection
unset($pdo);
?>

在下一章中,我们将扩展此插入查询示例,并通过实现预处理语句来更进一步,以获得更好的安全性和性能。

注意: mysqli_real_escape_string() 函数会转义字符串中的特殊字符并创建合法的 SQL 字符串,以提供针对 SQL 注入的 安全性。

这是将表单数据插入 MySQL 数据库表的非常基本的示例。你可以通过在将用户输入插入数据库表之前添加验证来扩展此示例并使其更具交互性。请查看有关 PHP 表单验证 的教程,以了解有关使用 PHP 清理和验证用户输入的更多信息。