Pygame 创建贪吃蛇游戏

贪吃蛇游戏

在本教程中,你将学习如何构建游戏贪吃蛇。游戏是街机游戏,它具有非常简单的逻辑,这就是为什么它是演示如何使用 Pygame 构建游戏的理想示例。

玩家被表示为蛇,如果它吃苹果就会长大。游戏的目标是尽可能多地吃掉苹果,而不能碰到自己。这在游戏的早期阶段非常容易,但随着蛇的长度增长而变得越来越困难。

入门:基本结构和事件处理

我们定义了一个类 Player,它保持玩家在屏幕上的位置以及它移动的速度。此外,我们定义了 Player 实例可以执行的操作(移动):

class Player:
    x = 10
    y = 10
    speed = 1
 
    def moveRight(self):
        self.x = self.x + self.speed
 
    def moveLeft(self):
        self.x = self.x - self.speed
 
    def moveUp(self):
        self.y = self.y - self.speed
 
    def moveDown(self):
        self.y = self.y + self.speed

可以创建玩家对象,并可以使用移动方法修改变量。

我们将这些方法与事件联系起来。在 Pygame 中,我们可以使用以下代码获得非阻塞键盘输入:

 pygame.event.pump()
 keys = pygame.key.get_pressed() 
 
 if (keys[K_RIGHT]):
    print "Right arrow pressed."

完整的代码使我们能够在屏幕上移动 Player

from pygame.locals import *
import pygame
 
class Player:
    x = 10
    y = 10
    speed = 1
 
    def moveRight(self):
        self.x = self.x + self.speed
 
    def moveLeft(self):
        self.x = self.x - self.speed
 
    def moveUp(self):
        self.y = self.y - self.speed
 
    def moveDown(self):
        self.y = self.y + self.speed
 
class App:
 
    windowWidth = 800
    windowHeight = 600
    player = 0
 
    def __init__(self):
        self._running = True
        self._display_surf = None
        self._image_surf = None
        self.player = Player() 
 
    def on_init(self):
        pygame.init()
        self._display_surf = pygame.display.set_mode((self.windowWidth,self.windowHeight), pygame.HWSURFACE)
 
        pygame.display.set_caption('Pygame pythonspot.com example')
        self._running = True
        self._image_surf = pygame.image.load("pygame.png").convert()
 
    def on_event(self, event):
        if event.type == QUIT:
            self._running = False
 
    def on_loop(self):
        pass
 
    def on_render(self):
        self._display_surf.fill((0,0,0))
        self._display_surf.blit(self._image_surf,(self.player.x,self.player.y))
        pygame.display.flip()
 
    def on_cleanup(self):
        pygame.quit()
 
    def on_execute(self):
        if self.on_init() == False:
            self._running = False
 
        while( self._running ):
            pygame.event.pump()
            keys = pygame.key.get_pressed() 
 
            if (keys[K_RIGHT]):
                self.player.moveRight()
 
            if (keys[K_LEFT]):
                self.player.moveLeft()
 
            if (keys[K_UP]):
                self.player.moveUp()
 
            if (keys[K_DOWN]):
                self.player.moveDown()
 
            if (keys[K_ESCAPE]):
                self._running = False
 
            self.on_loop()
            self.on_render()
        self.on_cleanup()
 
if __name__ == "__main__" :
    theApp = App()
    theApp.on_execute()

你现在可以使用箭头键在屏幕上移动块。

pygame 的例子。在屏幕上移动块

创建 Player(蛇)

Player 控制具有初始长度的蛇。当按下箭头键时,这条蛇总是在移动并改变它移动的方向。为此,请更新 Player 类:

class Player:
    x = 0
    y = 0
    speed = 32
    direction = 0
 
    def update(self):
        if self.direction == 0:
            self.x = self.x + self.speed
        if self.direction == 1:
            self.x = self.x - self.speed
        if self.direction == 2:
            self.y = self.y - self.speed
        if self.direction == 3:
            self.y = self.y + self.speed
 
    def moveRight(self):
        self.direction = 0
 
    def moveLeft(self):
        self.direction = 1
 
    def moveUp(self):
        self.direction = 2
 
    def moveDown(self):
        self.direction = 3

并且不要忘记在游戏循环中添加延迟。

import time

time.sleep (100.0 / 1000.0);

这开始更像是一条蛇,但它还没有基本长度。我们跟踪蛇的旧位置并移动蛇的头部。我们还将绘图方法移到了蛇身上。复制代码,你将有一条可以移动的蛇:

from pygame.locals import *
import pygame
import time
 
class Player:
    x = []
    y = []
    step = 44
    direction = 0
    length = 3
 
    updateCountMax = 2
    updateCount = 0
 
    def __init__(self, length):
       self.length = length
       for i in range(0,length):
           self.x.append(0)
           self.y.append(0)
 
    def update(self):
 
        self.updateCount = self.updateCount + 1
        if self.updateCount > self.updateCountMax:
 
            # update previous positions
            for i in range(self.length-1,0,-1):
                print "self.x[" + str(i) + "] = self.x[" + str(i-1) + "]"
                self.x[i] = self.x[i-1]
                self.y[i] = self.y[i-1]
 
            # update position of head of snake
            if self.direction == 0:
                self.x[0] = self.x[0] + self.step
            if self.direction == 1:
                self.x[0] = self.x[0] - self.step
            if self.direction == 2:
                self.y[0] = self.y[0] - self.step
            if self.direction == 3:
                self.y[0] = self.y[0] + self.step
 
            self.updateCount = 0
 
 
    def moveRight(self):
        self.direction = 0
 
    def moveLeft(self):
        self.direction = 1
 
    def moveUp(self):
        self.direction = 2
 
    def moveDown(self):
        self.direction = 3 
 
    def draw(self, surface, image):
        for i in range(0,self.length):
            surface.blit(image,(self.x[i],self.y[i])) 
 
 
class App:
 
    windowWidth = 800
    windowHeight = 600
    player = 0
 
    def __init__(self):
        self._running = True
        self._display_surf = None
        self._image_surf = None
        self.player = Player(10) 
 
    def on_init(self):
        pygame.init()
        self._display_surf = pygame.display.set_mode((self.windowWidth,self.windowHeight), pygame.HWSURFACE)
 
        pygame.display.set_caption('Pygame pythonspot.com example')
        self._running = True
        self._image_surf = pygame.image.load("pygame.png").convert()
 
    def on_event(self, event):
        if event.type == QUIT:
            self._running = False
 
    def on_loop(self):
        self.player.update()
        pass
 
    def on_render(self):
        self._display_surf.fill((0,0,0))
        self.player.draw(self._display_surf, self._image_surf)
        pygame.display.flip()
 
    def on_cleanup(self):
        pygame.quit()
 
    def on_execute(self):
        if self.on_init() == False:
            self._running = False
 
        while( self._running ):
            pygame.event.pump()
            keys = pygame.key.get_pressed() 
 
            if (keys[K_RIGHT]):
                self.player.moveRight()
 
            if (keys[K_LEFT]):
                self.player.moveLeft()
 
            if (keys[K_UP]):
                self.player.moveUp()
 
            if (keys[K_DOWN]):
                self.player.moveDown()
 
            if (keys[K_ESCAPE]):
                self._running = False
            self.on_loop()
            self.on_render()
 
            time.sleep (50.0 / 1000.0);
        self.on_cleanup()
 
if __name__ == "__main__" :
    theApp = App()
    theApp.on_execute()

结果:

贪吃蛇

贪吃蛇游戏逻辑

蛇游戏有一些规则:

  • 如果蛇吃了一个苹果,苹果就会移动到一个新的位置。
  • 如果蛇吃了一个苹果,蛇的长度就会增长。
  • 如果一条蛇与自身相碰,游戏结束。

我们首先创建一个新类,使我们能够创建苹果:

class Apple:
    x = 0
    y = 0
    step = 44
 
    def __init__(self,x,y):
        self.x = x * self.step
        self.y = y * self.step
 
    def draw(self, surface, image):
        surface.blit(image,(self.x, self.y))

为简单起见,我们将苹果显示为绿色立方体。我们有这个基本代码,但它比 Player 类要简单些:

from pygame.locals import *
import pygame
import time
 
class Apple:
    x = 0
    y = 0
    step = 44
 
    def __init__(self,x,y):
        self.x = x * self.step
        self.y = y * self.step
 
    def draw(self, surface, image):
        surface.blit(image,(self.x, self.y)) 
 
 
class Player:
    x = []
    y = []
    step = 44
    direction = 0
    length = 3
 
    updateCountMax = 2
    updateCount = 0
 
    def __init__(self, length):
       self.length = length
       for i in range(0,length):
           self.x.append(0)
           self.y.append(0)
 
    def update(self):
 
        self.updateCount = self.updateCount + 1
        if self.updateCount > self.updateCountMax:
 
            # update previous positions
            for i in range(self.length-1,0,-1):
                print "self.x[" + str(i) + "] = self.x[" + str(i-1) + "]"
                self.x[i] = self.x[i-1]
                self.y[i] = self.y[i-1]
 
            # update position of head of snake
            if self.direction == 0:
                self.x[0] = self.x[0] + self.step
            if self.direction == 1:
                self.x[0] = self.x[0] - self.step
            if self.direction == 2:
                self.y[0] = self.y[0] - self.step
            if self.direction == 3:
                self.y[0] = self.y[0] + self.step
 
            self.updateCount = 0
 
 
    def moveRight(self):
        self.direction = 0
 
    def moveLeft(self):
        self.direction = 1
 
    def moveUp(self):
        self.direction = 2
 
    def moveDown(self):
        self.direction = 3 
 
    def draw(self, surface, image):
        for i in range(0,self.length):
            surface.blit(image,(self.x[i],self.y[i])) 
 
 
class App:
 
    windowWidth = 800
    windowHeight = 600
    player = 0
    apple = 0
 
    def __init__(self):
        self._running = True
        self._display_surf = None
        self._image_surf = None
        self._apple_surf = None
        self.player = Player(10) 
        self.apple = Apple(5,5)
 
    def on_init(self):
        pygame.init()
        self._display_surf = pygame.display.set_mode((self.windowWidth,self.windowHeight), pygame.HWSURFACE)
 
        pygame.display.set_caption('Pygame pythonspot.com example')
        self._running = True
        self._image_surf = pygame.image.load("pygame.png").convert()
        self._apple_surf = pygame.image.load("apple.png").convert()
 
    def on_event(self, event):
        if event.type == QUIT:
            self._running = False
 
    def on_loop(self):
        self.player.update()
        pass
 
    def on_render(self):
        self._display_surf.fill((0,0,0))
        self.player.draw(self._display_surf, self._image_surf)
        self.apple.draw(self._display_surf, self._apple_surf)
        pygame.display.flip()
 
    def on_cleanup(self):
        pygame.quit()
 
    def on_execute(self):
        if self.on_init() == False:
            self._running = False
 
        while( self._running ):
            pygame.event.pump()
            keys = pygame.key.get_pressed() 
 
            if (keys[K_RIGHT]):
                self.player.moveRight()
 
            if (keys[K_LEFT]):
                self.player.moveLeft()
 
            if (keys[K_UP]):
                self.player.moveUp()
 
            if (keys[K_DOWN]):
                self.player.moveDown()
 
            if (keys[K_ESCAPE]):
                self._running = False
 
            self.on_loop()
            self.on_render()
 
            time.sleep (50.0 / 1000.0);
        self.on_cleanup()
 
if __name__ == "__main__" :
    theApp = App()
    theApp.on_execute()

现在我们添加了游戏逻辑。要知道蛇的位置是否与苹果位置匹配,我们必须进行*碰撞检测*。这简单地意味着蛇的坐标与苹果的坐标相交。我们创建了一个新方法:

    def isCollision(self,x1,y1,x2,y2,bsize):
        if x1 >= x2 and x1 <= x2 + bsize:
            if y1 >= y2 and y1 <= y2 + bsize:
                return True
        return False

如果坐标 (x1,y1) 与其 (x2,y2) 在给定块尺寸 bsize 内相交的话,它将返回 True。我们称这种方法来确定蛇是否与苹果碰撞。我们需要为整条蛇检查这个,而不仅仅是头部,因为我们不希望苹果的新位置在蛇的某个地方。我们使用相同的 isCollision 方法来确定蛇是否与自身发生碰撞(=输掉游戏)。

完整代码:

from pygame.locals import *
from random import randint
import pygame
import time
 
class Apple:
    x = 0
    y = 0
    step = 44
 
    def __init__(self,x,y):
        self.x = x * self.step
        self.y = y * self.step
 
    def draw(self, surface, image):
        surface.blit(image,(self.x, self.y)) 
 
 
class Player:
    x = [0]
    y = [0]
    step = 44
    direction = 0
    length = 3
 
    updateCountMax = 2
    updateCount = 0
 
    def __init__(self, length):
       self.length = length
       for i in range(0,2000):
           self.x.append(-100)
           self.y.append(-100)
 
       # initial positions, no collision.
       self.x[1] = 1*44
       self.x[2] = 2*44
 
    def update(self):
 
        self.updateCount = self.updateCount + 1
        if self.updateCount > self.updateCountMax:
 
            # update previous positions
            for i in range(self.length-1,0,-1):
                self.x[i] = self.x[i-1]
                self.y[i] = self.y[i-1]
 
            # update position of head of snake
            if self.direction == 0:
                self.x[0] = self.x[0] + self.step
            if self.direction == 1:
                self.x[0] = self.x[0] - self.step
            if self.direction == 2:
                self.y[0] = self.y[0] - self.step
            if self.direction == 3:
                self.y[0] = self.y[0] + self.step
 
            self.updateCount = 0
 
 
    def moveRight(self):
        self.direction = 0
 
    def moveLeft(self):
        self.direction = 1
 
    def moveUp(self):
        self.direction = 2
 
    def moveDown(self):
        self.direction = 3 
 
    def draw(self, surface, image):
        for i in range(0,self.length):
            surface.blit(image,(self.x[i],self.y[i])) 
 
class Game:
    def isCollision(self,x1,y1,x2,y2,bsize):
        if x1 >= x2 and x1 <= x2 + bsize:
            if y1 >= y2 and y1 <= y2 + bsize:
                return True
        return False
 
class App:
 
    windowWidth = 800
    windowHeight = 600
    player = 0
    apple = 0
 
    def __init__(self):
        self._running = True
        self._display_surf = None
        self._image_surf = None
        self._apple_surf = None
        self.game = Game()
        self.player = Player(3) 
        self.apple = Apple(5,5)
 
    def on_init(self):
        pygame.init()
        self._display_surf = pygame.display.set_mode((self.windowWidth,self.windowHeight), pygame.HWSURFACE)
 
        pygame.display.set_caption('Pygame pythonspot.com example')
        self._running = True
        self._image_surf = pygame.image.load("block.jpg").convert()
        self._apple_surf = pygame.image.load("block.jpg").convert()
 
    def on_event(self, event):
        if event.type == QUIT:
            self._running = False
 
    def on_loop(self):
        self.player.update()
 
        # does snake eat apple?
        for i in range(0,self.player.length):
            if self.game.isCollision(self.apple.x,self.apple.y,self.player.x[i], self.player.y[i],44):
                self.apple.x = randint(2,9) * 44
                self.apple.y = randint(2,9) * 44
                self.player.length = self.player.length + 1
 
 
        # does snake collide with itself?
        for i in range(2,self.player.length):
            if self.game.isCollision(self.player.x[0],self.player.y[0],self.player.x[i], self.player.y[i],40):
                print("You lose! Collision: ")
                print("x[0] (" + str(self.player.x[0]) + "," + str(self.player.y[0]) + ")")
                print("x[" + str(i) + "] (" + str(self.player.x[i]) + "," + str(self.player.y[i]) + ")")
                exit(0)
 
        pass
 
    def on_render(self):
        self._display_surf.fill((0,0,0))
        self.player.draw(self._display_surf, self._image_surf)
        self.apple.draw(self._display_surf, self._apple_surf)
        pygame.display.flip()
 
    def on_cleanup(self):
        pygame.quit()
 
    def on_execute(self):
        if self.on_init() == False:
            self._running = False
 
        while( self._running ):
            pygame.event.pump()
            keys = pygame.key.get_pressed() 
 
            if (keys[K_RIGHT]):
                self.player.moveRight()
 
            if (keys[K_LEFT]):
                self.player.moveLeft()
 
            if (keys[K_UP]):
                self.player.moveUp()
 
            if (keys[K_DOWN]):
                self.player.moveDown()
 
            if (keys[K_ESCAPE]):
                self._running = False
 
            self.on_loop()
            self.on_render()
 
            time.sleep (50.0 / 1000.0);
        self.on_cleanup()
 
if __name__ == "__main__" :
    theApp = App()
    theApp.on_execute()

结论:

你学习了如何使用 Python 创建游戏蛇以及碰撞检测,图像加载和事件处理等概念。很多东西都可以添加到这个小玩具游戏中,但这只是一个非常简单的例子。🙂